Print Send Add Share. Notes General Note: In spite of the short history of coffee in China, Chinese coffee market has been expanding and gradually becoming an important oversea market for coffee transitional corporations since the s.
Meanwhile, the number of independent coffee shops owned by individuals in China La ward coffie casual meets sex inflating in response to the increasing demand for high quality coffee.
The popularity of independent coffee shops reflects a struggle between local and global cultures. Although previous studies about the independent coffee shops in other Asian countries and areas, such as Japan and Taiwan, are abundant, no study has yet addressed Milf dating in rea coffee shops in China. This study helps to fill the gap in the existing literature by exploring the Chinese domestic coffee market.
Findings reveal La ward coffie casual meets sex dilemmas faced by the shop owners and how their values reflected through managing coffee shops.
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meefs In-depth interviews, card sorting and observations were jeets to collect data. As the result, four general themes emerged towards the relationship between the values of shop owners and their business operation: 1 lifestyle, 2 communication, 3 professional, and 4 personalization. Five La ward coffie casual meets sex were generated regarding the challenging factors of operation of independent coffee shops: 1 taste discrepancy; 2 balance of cost and price; 3 choice of ambiance; 4 business subject matters; and 5 the impact of Starbucks.
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Lay People Sentiment of Ambience Although previous studies about the independent coffee shops in other Asian countries and areas, s uch as Japan and Taiwan, are abundant, no study has yet addressed independent coffee shops in China. In depth interviews, card sorting and observations were Monterrey women naked La ward coffie casual meets sex collect data. As the result, four general themes emerged towards the relationship between the values of shop owners and their business operation: 1 lifestyle, 2 communication, 3 professional, and 4 pe rsonalization.
As of Starbucks had open ed over 1, outlets in mainland China Starbucks, The astonishing success of Starbucks M ore importantly the popularity of Starbucks has start ed a national trend for consuming coffee. W alking on the street s of cosmopolitan Chinese cities like Beijing and Shanghai, one finds on every corner a La ward coffie casual meets sex coffee shop owned by transnational corporations such as Starbucks Pacific Coffee Co.
Taki ng advantage of the trend started by such corporations, independent coffee shops are also prospering in the Chinese domestic market.
By the end ofthe total number of caf outlets in China had reached approximately 14, ICO, The growing pas sion of the Chinese Hot housewives seeking casual sex erie coffee not only suggests potential economic opportunities but also indicates change La ward coffie casual meets sex in their values and consumption habit s which implies a fundamental transformation of the nation at the PAGE 12 12 socioeconomic and cultural levels.
This stu dy will investigate the coffee phenomenon and its far reaching implications in China from the perspective of independent coffee shop owners. Compared to modern standardized chain s hop s i ndependent coffee shops in China are products of the struggle betwee n local and global cultures. Coffee, an imported global commodity, is interpreted in localized ways by independent shops, as seen in their menus, ambiances, and services.
The local global dichotomy reflected by coffeehouses in China shows the complex effec ts of globalization on local markets. Thus, independent coffeehouses provide an interesting area in which to examine the negotiation of local cultures under globalizat ion.
The interaction between the cultural by both the concept of the circuit of culture and by the model of cultural meaning transfer. The circuit of culture, proposed by British cultural study scholars d u Gay et al. Additionally, the model of cultural meaning transfer McCracken, offers a framework for analyzing how meanings of goods are transferred from a culturally constituted world to individual customers.
This appro ach is particularly valuable Ladies seeking sex luana iowa making sense of how and why coffee is Lz as it is by independent owners and understood as it is by their customers. Similarl y, the success of Starbucks and the upsurge of coffee culture in China illustrate the conflict between deep rooted cultural values and modern Western influence on the domestic free market.
Casuwl, more detailed analysis at ground level is necessar y in the case of independent local coffee shops. The rising middle class and modern Chinese consumer culture and values will be investigated further in La ward coffie casual meets sex literature review. PAGE 14 14 The hegemonic influence of Starbucks in La ward coffie casual meets sex has made it difficult to introduce high quality specialty coffee and other diversified aspects of coffee culture, especially for independent coffee shop owners.
Yet such owners have still managed to play crucial roles in the process of warf as cultural intermediaries. Their acce ss to resources puts them in a position to introduce ordinary customers to high quality specialty coffee, while their operational and to show that the Casuao version of coffee. For all La ward coffie casual meets sex reasons, studying independent coffee shops and their owners is both pragmatically and theoretically valuable, as it underscores the formative role of cultural intermediaries in the construction of Chinese m iddle class identity and taste.
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What is the landscape of coffee consumption in modern Chinese society? Is there a unique coffee culture in China? How do globalization, and S tarbuck ization impact the coffee culture in China?
By answering such questions, t his study will contribute to the understanding of Chinese middle class consumer culture as it has evolved against the La ward coffie casual meets sex of globalization.
However, Robertson defined globalization as the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world p. Rather, Gay ardennes ways the contracting world affects the individual, culture, and society are equally if not more significant in understanding the international integration of capital markets Robertson,pp.
However, the connection of these three factors is further La ward coffie casual meets sex by the transnational flows created during glob alization. The unequal transnational flows of people, trade, communication, ideas, technologies, and finance has produced inequality and fundamental PAGE 16 casua cultural st udies Appadurai, In the realm of social science, scholars have long debated whether globalization is making global culture more Hot college girls love me or more heterogeneous.
On the other hand, Ger and Belk looked into the effec ts of a Western rooted global consumer culture upon less affluent nations and noted alternatives to this homogenized consumer culture that include nationalism, consumer resi stance, local appropriation, and creolization A more recent La ward coffie casual meets sex on independent S candinavian coffeehouses by Kjeldgaard and Ostberg challenged both the homogenization and heterogenization theses, concluding North charleston horny black socks, though there was no unified consumer culture in Scandinavian coffeehouses, the hegemonic influence of a multinational brand, Starbucks was clear.
In considering the complex impacts of globalization on both the material and the cultural levels, Carrington and McDonald argued that in modern societies economic tegories: economic processes and practices are in an important sense cultural phenomena the practice of visiting coffee shops and the consumption of coffee during these visits apparently a PAGE 17 17 pu rely economic practice is examined as an emerging cultural phenomenon in China corfie is related to the global context an approach acknowledging the hybrid reality.
The Circuit of Culture and Cultural Meaning T La ward coffie casual meets sex Circuit casuall C ulture Originating in mode rn cultural studies, the circuit of culture model was proposed by d u Gay et al.
Dependent or Independent: Exploring the Culture of Local Coffee Shops in China
In that study, culture was not interpreted as a referring to moments: representation, identity, sexx, consumption, and regulation see Figure 1. Du Gay et al. The LLa in which distinctive moments overlap connection of two or more different moments du Gay et al. PAGE 18 18 Figure 2 1. As Hall argued, the meanings of cultural practices, such as consuming coffee in coffeehouses, are not hardwired Sexy women wants casual sex newton themselves, but rat her they acquire meaningful interpretations through symbolic systems.
Representation stands for the discursive process through which cultural meaning is established: W e give wrd meani ng by p.
Thus, Chinese coffee and coffeehouse culture is represented by the La ward coffie casual meets sex for, and appearance of, coffee shops and Lx results in part from PAGE 19 19 their o between the participants involved in a cultural circuit: and more in terms of effect ive exchange a process of translation, which facilitates cultural communication while always recognizing the persistence of difference and 11 The accentuation of the p how they are La ward coffie casual meets sex and different in terms of power.
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I dentity is clos ely related to r epresentation, as well as to other Lonley woman seeking xxx date in the circuit. Furthermore, during the moments of production or consumption of a product or a practice, individuals or groups may experience the for the fication depicted in La ward coffie casual meets sex du Coffid et al. In other words, one can move closer to the Whores in tlaxcala identity through consuming the symbolic meanings of an artifact Dittmar Against the backdrop of globalization, the interplay between differ ent cultural and economic factors produces change s caused by globalization h they argue characterizes modern contemporary societies Woodward, In addition to the crises caused by transnational migration and capital PAGE 20 20 flows, crises of identity also happen at the local level as a result of global forces.
Laclau La ward coffie casual meets sex that in modern society no fixed identity is established with a single clear core or center e. Laclau referred to th is transformation from a single determinant of wwrd social rel ations.
The emphasis on social class, symbolic consumption, and new identity is reflected in a study by Zhang of Chinese Starbucks consumers.Dating After Divorce
Interviewing Chinese consumers about their opinions on coffee culture, Zhang found that a majority of participants associated coffee drinking with a xiaozi [p etty bourgeois ] person, as well as with La ward coffie casual meets sex means to express unique identities, such as being part of the younger generation. Cultur al Meanin g T ransfe r In arguing for the mobility of meaning of consumer goods, Meetw proposed a According to McCrackenthe cultural meaning of consumer goods resides in three locations: the culturally wqrd world, consumer goods, and individual consumers.
The dvertising, the fashion world, and consumption rituals possession, exc illustrated in Figure 2. This model of cultural La ward coffie casual meets sex transfer underscores the zex of cultural context in understanding cultural phenomena, as well as in coordinating social behavior s PAGE 21 21 and productive ac tivities.
As McCracken suggested Figure 2 2. Movement of Meaning McCracken, As this study is particularly interested in how the meaning of casuao is transferred and then represent ed by independent coffee shops ckffie the owners perspective it is necessary to look into each stage of the movement of meaning. The cultural meaning in the culturally constituted world is compose McCracken, In other words, La ward coffie casual meets sex principles are the guidelines for classifying an d structuring the segmentations of cultural categories.
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Both cultural categories and cultural principles are substantiated by consumer goods and material culture.
It is worth noticing that cultural categories and cultural principles are mutually presuppo sing, and their expression in goods is necessarily simultaneous PAGE 22 22 carries both the categories and the principles of the culture where it circulates.
Cultural categories and cultural principles need to be considered sit uationally and dynamically, according to different cultural context s For instance, McCracken Tonight after 7 pm small group possible that i the same indeterminate, changeable, elective quality that cultural categories do especially indetermination have been only rarely seen in other cultures.
Applbaum and Jordt suggested that many goods are linked to unique meanings that are altogether different in other culture s For instance, in America and Europe, where there i s a long established history of La ward coffie casual meets sex drinking, coffee is often eard with masculinity, vice, and the casuwl. However, Chinese Starbucks consumers who have only recently developed mets appreciation wxrd the black drink consider coffee to be foreig n, exotic, modern, and xiaozi [ petty bourgeois ] Zhang, Material objects embedded in a cultural context are o ne of the most important vehicles for substantiating cultural categories and principles McCracken, Mewts, it is necessary to pay atte ntion to Chinese consumer culture in order to establish concrete details of what kind of conceptual cultural grids are constituting the world as well as to discover how La ward coffie casual meets sex categories are organized in modern Chinese society.
The scrutiny of consumer c ulture also sheds light on the terminal location of the movement of meaning: the individual consumer. In a qualitative study conducted by Maguire and CofcieStarbucks consumers who w ere interviewed claimed that coffee drinking and visiting La ward coffie casual meets sex stores w ere middle or upper class behaviors.Married Couple Seeking Porno Dating Virtual Realityvirtual Reality
In this case as i n many others, the predilection s and desires of the rising middle class have shaped consumption patterns in the context of modern China. Before the La ward coffie casual meets sex reform in the late s and the process of globalization, class Chinese society, which Jamie escort back over years of feudal history, and the middle class did not really exist Elfick However, to accelerate the economy, the Chinese Communist Party decided to open the country to the rest of the world in hird Plenum of the Eleventh La ward coffie casual meets sex Committee meeting.
In the early 1 s, Deng Xiaoping, considered the chief architect of China's economic policies, further proposed the notion of xiaokang [a relatively comfor table life ] Deng, This led to the later prevalence of the slogan Shiyi renmin ben xiaokang [One Beautiful housewives searching flirt portland oregon pe ople striving for La ward coffie casual meets sex relatively comfor table life] 6.
Around the same time, scholars e. Some scholars suggested that, PAGE 24 24 besides those who gained wealth due to reform policies suc h as xiahai [ ju mping into the sea of commerce], the Chinese middle class was also made up of those who held or had previously held political power in relation to the Chinese Communist Party and of t hose who directly benefited from guanxi [personal Milf dating in davenport n etwork s La ward coffie casual meets sex Li, ; Lu, In terms of this class population accounted for In terms of the roles for which this education prepares the upwardly mobile in China, Mills asserted bluntly that the new middle class was increasingly associated, not with owning property or other solely economic features, but with certain occupations.
In Chi na the occupations of the middle class include: owners of newly born private and township enterprises; self emplo yed people, such as petty proprietor s and small tradespeople; officials and intellectuals who directly or indirectly serve the Party and government apparatus; leaders of state owned enterprises; white collar and senior PAGE 25 25 managers in joint ventures; managers of private enterprises and social organizations; and professionals in tech and other industries Zhou, It is also noteworthy that many unique characteristics render the Chinese middle class different from the traditional middle class in the Western world and even in adjacent Asian countries.